An analysis of the benefits and the problems of cloning
For example, some supporters of cloning point to the existence of naturally occurring identical twins as proof that we have little reason to worry about cloning. Inability of mouse blastomere nuclei transferred to enucleated zygotes to support development in vitro.
But out of physical causes, unknown to us, perhaps unknowable, arise moral duties, which, as we are able perfectly to comprehend, we are bound indispensably to perform.
Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells.
Mammalian leukocytes contain all the genetic information necessary for the development of a new individual. Men come in that manner into a community with the social state of their parents, endowed with all the benefits, loaded with all the duties of their situation.
But while it is important that we prohibit cloning-to-produce-children to prevent the long-term degradation of the family, we cannot do so without also making a strong case against the much more immediate threat posed by cloning-for-biomedical-research.
The Pros of Cloning Benefits of cloning include being able to create tissue and organs that doctors can use when needed for surgery on the original.
Problems with cloning animals
Production of gene-targeted sheep by nuclear transfer from cultured somatic cells. Effects of Cloning While the purpose of cloning is to create an exact replica — if scientists cloned a human that appears identical to the original — it raises the questions as to whether the cloned human is an individual separate from the original and is due the same rights as any other human. In addition to preventing simple genetic diseases, cloning could also be used to reduce the risk of diseases caused by combinations of genetic risk factors. This argument takes three general forms. While contraception and technologies like artificial insemination and IVF have done much to separate sex from reproduction, no reproductive technology other than cloning has actually made it possible to eliminate the need for biological contributions from two human beings to create a child. In a Gallup survey of 1, U. Societal impacts: Human cloning could produce psychological distress for the clone and society. Eight calves cloned from somatic cells of a single adult. Factors affecting the efficiency of introducing foreign DNA into mice by microinjecting eggs. The First Cloned Animal: Dolly the Sheep The first successful animal cloning occurred over 22 years ago, after a Scottish Blackface sheep surrogate mother gave birth to Dolly on July 5, , at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh. Therefore we could conclude that the scientist has harmed them, and that for this reason among others the scientist should not have performed the experiment. Inability of mouse blastomere nuclei transferred to enucleated zygotes to support development in vitro. Such actions would clearly put the resulting children at an elevated risk of a wide range of genetic defects. If labs can clone and grow only the parts needed, this would eliminate the moral and ethical issues associated with cloning an entire person.
Whatever improvements might someday be made in the safety of animal cloning, the high variability between the health outcomes of cloned animals of different species means that the safety of cloning-to-produce-children will initially be unknowable.
Rietveld et al. The cons or disadvantages of human cloning raise moral, ethical and safety issues: Reproductive cloning: The negatives of human cloning including the making of designer babies.
The fact that BWS has a significantly higher incidence among children who are produced using in vitro fertilization  suggests that at least some of the symptoms associated with LOS and BWS stem from embryonic manipulation rather than the cloning procedure itself.
What is good about cloning
The last successful cloning of a primate was in , but scientists have also cloned about 20 different types of animals including dogs, pigs, frogs, mice, cows and rabbits since the first cloned animal in Children are not consenting to their relation, but their relation, without their actual consent, binds them to its duties; or rather it implies their consent because the presumed consent of every rational creature is in unison with the predisposed order of things. But while it is important that we prohibit cloning-to-produce-children to prevent the long-term degradation of the family, we cannot do so without also making a strong case against the much more immediate threat posed by cloning-for-biomedical-research. Moral reflection on cloning-to-produce-children should be concerned with the question of whether it would contribute to or diminish the well-being of children, parents, and families. In , IVF pioneer Robert Edwards compared criticism he had received in the s to the criticism being leveled at human cloning, and argued that eventually cloning could come to be accepted as an infertility treatment just as IVF has been. John A. Sparman, Masahito Tachibana, and Shoukhrat M.
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