Living with no money and alone, only with nature and understanding the society by this way was his main goal. The transcendentalist movement struck at the right time with the American populous.
They both criticize the materialist way of living. Like Emerson, Thoreau also wanted to live a simple life, in order to find deeper meaning in life.
A person who goes through life without knowing what he or she stands for and believes in is living an incomplete life. Every individual, group and country has their own identity which makes them different from others and it shows uniqueness of oneself.
Emerson decides not to conform to modern ways, but to be an individual. In other words, nature provides people communication. They realize the existence of God. He has deeper thoughts.