The state as an organism analogous to a large person in the state of nature

His major belief was that man is a beast that defines his identity through the need to be controlled under some kind of external, oppressive power.

similarities between society and organism

Then we call it new life. But it does not take much counterevidence to rebut the Theistic Lottery Hypothesis: a single observation of a lottery that relies on a random selection process will suffice. The result is that the probability of evolving functionally complex organisms capable of surviving a wide variety of conditions is increased to such an extent that it exceeds the probability of the design explanation.

William Derham, for example, saw evidence of intelligent design in the vision of birds, the drum of the ear, the eye-socket, and the digestive system.

Schlesinger's fine-tuning argument also appears vulnerable to the same criticism as the other versions of the design argument see Himma Hume criticizes the argument on two main grounds.

And at the very beginning of his memorable work he insisted upon the term being taken in its "large and metaphorical sense including dependence of one being on another, and including which is more important not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny.

This is in regards to the belief that Hobbes and Aristotle hold, which is that governments do have a role in promoting good morals and leading a virtuous life; Hobbes by sovereignty and Aristotle through means of reaching telos.

Contemporary biologist, Richard Dawkinsuses a programming problem to show that the logic of the process renders the Darwinian explanation significantly more probable than the design explanation.

the social organism herbert spencer summary

He describes the functions of human beings whilst in the state of nature. Consider, for example, how much more information was available to the court in the Caputo case than is available to the proponent of the design argument for God's existence.

Since the world, on this analysis, is closely analogous to the most intricate artifacts produced by human beings, we can infer "by all the rules of analogy" the existence of an intelligent designer who created the world.

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Design Arguments for the Existence of God